Assela Pathirana (1969) is a Civil Engineer and hydrologist originating from Sri Lanka. He holds Bachelor degree in Civil Engineering, B.Sc.Eng. (First Class Honours) (1995) from University of Peradeniya Sri Lanka and Masters (1998) and Doctoral (2001) degrees in Civil Engineering, specializing in hydrology and water resources engineering, from Tokyo University. Next he worked as a senior research fellow of the Environment and Sustainable Development programme of United Nations University and later as a research scientist of the International Centre for Water Hazard Risk Management (UNESCO-ICHARM), before joining IHE-DELFT in year 2006. Currently he works as Associate Professor of Integrated Urban Water Cycle Management in the department of Water Science and Engineering in the core group of Flood Resilience.
His Currently leads the research programme on Water Sensitive Cities of the Flood Resilience Core Group (FRG). In this context, he is engaged in multi-disciplinary research programme that involves water quantity and quality aspects, sanitation issues as well as societal and economic aspects of urban and peri-urban development. He has published some 50 indexed journal publications that has been collectively cited more than thousand times. In addition he has co-authored a book on “Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage Systems” in 2012 (IWA publishing) and co-edited two books.
Assela has 17 years of experience in teaching at post-doctoral-level and currently teaches subjects of urban drainage, water-sensitive cities, asset management of urban water systems, climate change, urban flood management, modelling water transport and distribution systems, numerical modelling and computer programming. During the last few years he has developed an interest in the didactics and student-centred learning. In 2010 he completed the University Teaching Qualification programme for Dutch Universities. He has experience organizing and conducting didactic training programmes for university professors and has authored several articles including two peer-reviewed journal articles on the subject.
During the last twelve years he has been engaged in more than thirty research and capacity development projects ranging from Developing countries to European context with funding from different Dutch, European and International outlets.
Ngo, H.; Pathirana, A.; Zevenbergen, C.; Ranasinghe, R. An Effective Modelling Approach to Support Probabilistic Flood Forecasting in Coastal Cities—Case Study: Can Tho, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(2), 55.
Rui Y, Fu D, Minh HD, Radhakrishnan M, Zevenbergen C, Pathirana A. Urban Surface Water Quality, Flood Water Quality and Human Health Impacts in Chinese Cities. What Do We Know? Water. 2018;10(3):240.
Radhakrishnan M, Pathirana A, Ashley RM, Gersonius B, Zevenbergen C. Flexible adaptation planning for water sensitive cities. Cities. 2018.
Radhakrishnan M, Islam T, Ashley RM, Pathirana A, Quan NH, Gersonius B, et al. Context specific adaptation grammars for climate adaptation in urban areas. Environmental Modelling & Software. 2018;102:73-83.
Yau WK, Radhakrishnan M, Liong S-Y, Zevenbergen C, Pathirana A. Effectiveness of ABC Waters design features for runoff quantity control in urban Singapore. Water. 2017;9(8):577.
Vincent SU, Radhakrishnan M, Hayde L, Pathirana A. Enhancing the Economic Value of Large Investments in Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) through Inclusion of Ecosystems Services Benefits. Water. 2017;9(11):841.
Radhakrishnan M, Pathirana A, Ashley R, Zevenbergen C. Structuring climate adaptation through multiple perspectives: Framework and case study on flood risk management. Water. 2017;9(2):129.
Radhakrishnan M, Pathak TM, Irvine K, Pathirana A. Scoping for the Operation of Agile Urban Adaptation for Secondary Cities of the Global South: Possibilities in Pune, India. Water. 2017;9(12):939.
Radhakrishnan M, Nguyen HQ, Gersonius B, Pathirana A, Vinh KQ, Ashley RM, et al. Coping capacities for improving adaptation pathways for flood protection in Can Tho, Vietnam. Climatic Change. 2017:1-13.
Pathirana A, Radhakrishnan M, Quan NH, Zevenbergen C. Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficits—unified framework for secondary cities: part I—conceptual framework. Climatic Change. 2017;1(14).
Pathirana A, Radhakrishnan M, Ashley R, N.H. Q, Zevenbergen C. Managing urban water systems with significant adaptation deficits—unified framework for secondary cities: part II—the practice. Climatic Change. 2017;1(18).
Nguyen HQ, Radhakrishnan M, Huynh TTN, Baino-Salingay ML, Ho LP, Steen PVd, et al. Water Quality Dynamics of Urban Water Bodies during Flooding in Can Tho City, Vietnam. Water. 2017;9(4):260.
Nguyen HQ, Huynh TTN, Pathirana A, Van der Steen P. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal− Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam). International journal of environmental research and public health. 2017;14(12):1485.
Goh XP, Radhakrishnan M, Zevenbergen C, Pathirana A. Effectiveness of Runoff Control Legislation and Active, Beautiful, Clean (ABC) Waters Design Features in Singapore. Water. 2017;9(627).
Radhakrishnan M, Pathirana A, Ashley R, Gersonius B, Zevenbergen C. Flexibility in adaptation planning: Guidelines for when, where & how to embed and value flexibility in an urban flood resilience context. 2016.
Pathirana A, Radhakrishnan M, Quan N, Gersonius B, Ashley R, Zevenbergen C, editors. Coping capacities for improving adaptation pathways for flood protection in Can Tho, Vietnam. AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts; 2016.
Huong HTL, Assela P, Thuc T. Facing multiple challenges: the future of flooding in Can Tho city. VNU Journal of Science: Earth and Environmental Sciences. 2016;28(2).
Clemens M, Rijke J, Pathirana A, Evers J, Quan NH. Social learning for adaptation to climate change in developing countries: insights from Vietnam. Journal of Water and Climate Change. 2016;7(2):365-78.
Veerbeek W, Pathirana A, Ashley R, Zevenbergen C. Enhancing the calibration of an urban growth model using a memetic algorithm. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems. 2015;50:53-65.
Tembo L, Pathirana A, van der Steen P, Zevenbergen C. Flexible engineering designs for urban water management in Lusaka, Zambia. Water Science and Technology. 2015;72(10):1675-81.
Wehn U, Irvine K, Jaspers F, Douven W, Pathirana A, de Ruytera E. Role and international experiences of UNESCO-IHE in capacity development, water governance, 2015: 22-33.
Kuntiyawichai K, Uhlenbrook S, Douven W, Evers J, Lens P, Pathirana A, et al., editors. IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation in the Mekong River Basin. THA 2015 International Conference on “Climate Change and Water & Environment Management in Monsoon Asia” 28-30 January 2015, At Bangkok, Thailand; 2015.
Hodzic A, Vojinovic Z, Seyoum S, Pathirana A, Drnda N, Meijer S, et al. Use of modeling for cost-effective reconstruction of urban wastewater infrastructure. Applications of Activated Sludge Models. 2015:221.
Busker TS, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C. Rainfall runoff control in Batam Towards a green and flood
Adeogun AG, Daramola MO, Pathirana A. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters. Water Science. 2015;29(2):146-55.
Salinas Rodriguez CN, Ashley R, Gersonius B, Rijke J, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C. Incorporation and application of resilience in the context of water-sensitive urban design: linking European and Australian perspectives. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 2014;1(2):173-86.
Rijke J, Smith JV, Gersonius B, van Herk S, Pathirana A, Ashley R, et al. Operationalising resilience to drought: Multi-layered safety for flooding applied to droughts. Journal of hydrology. 2014;519:2652-9.
Radhakrishnan M, Nguyen Xuan Quang C, Pathirana A, Long Phi H, Ashley RM. Evaluation of retrofitting options in urban drainage systems based on flexibility: A case study for nhieu loc-thi nghe basin in ho chi Minh CITY. 2014.
Pathirana A. SWMM5-EA–A Tool For Learning Optimization Of Urban Drainage And Sewerage Systems With Genetic Algorithms. 2014.
Clemens M, Rijke J, Pathirana A, Quan NH, editors. Effective stakeholder analysis for urban flood resilience in Vietnam using design proposition. th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Sarawak, Malaysia; 2014.
Willems P, Olsson J, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Gregersen IB, et al., editors. Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: A state-of-the-art review. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2013: Showcasing the Future; 2013.
Willems P, Olsson J, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Bulow Gregersen I, et al., editors. Review of climate change impact analysis on rainfall extremes and urban drainage. Proceedings of 2013 IAHR World Congress; 2013: Tsinghua University Press.
Willems P, Olsson J, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Bulow Gregersen I, et al. 8.4. 2 African Development Bank’s Experience Following Nexus Approach–Case Studies in Integrated Watershed Management to achieve Food Security and Sustainable Natural Resources Management from the Republic of Cape Verde, Burundi and Gambia. Advancing a nexus approach to the sustainable management of water, soil and waste. 2013:142.
Seibert J, Uhlenbrook S, Wagener T. " Hydrology education in a changing world" Preface. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2013;17(4):1393-9.
Rodriguez CS, Ashley R, Gersonius B, Pathirana A, Rijke J, Zevenbergen C. Flood resilience incorporation and application in the context of water sensitive cities. Water Sensitive Urban Design 2013: WSUD 2013. 2013:375.
Radhakrishnan M, Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Zevenbergen C, Ashley R. Resilience approach to Urban Flood Risk Management systems using Real in Options-a review. Water Sensitive Urban Design 2013: WSUD 2013. 2013:134.
Pathirana A, Veerbeek W, Denekew H, Banda A, Zevenburgen C. Impact of urban growth-driven landuse change on microclimate and extreme precipitation–a sensitivity study. Atmospheric Research. 2013.
Pathirana A, Urrestarazu S, Hayde L, De Fraiture C, Rodriguez CS. Value of SuDS beyond urban flood management: The Ecosystem services value of green/blue solutions. Water Sensitive Urban Design 2013: WSUD 2013. 2013:192.
Huong H, Pathirana A. Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2013;17(1):379-94.
Gersonius B, Ashley R, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C. Climate change uncertainty: building flexibility into water and flood risk infrastructure. Climatic Change. 2013;116(2):411-23.
Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Willems P, Olsson J, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Gregersen IB, et al. Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: a review. Water Science and Technology. 2013;68(1):16-28.
Zevenbergen C, Pathirana A. Managing urban flooding in the face of continuous change. Resilience and Urban Risk Management. 2012:73-7.
Willems P, Olsson J, Arnbjerg-Nielsen K, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Bulow-Gregersen I, et al., editors. Limitations and pitfalls of climate change impact analysis on urban rainfall extremes. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Precipitation in Urban Areas: Urban Challenges in Rainfall Analysis, St Moritz, Switzerland; 2012.
Willems P, Olsson J, Arnbjerg K, Beecham S, Pathirana A, Barlow I, et al. Impacts of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage Systems. IWA publishing; 2012.
Veerbeek W, Pathirana A, Mudenda S, Brdjanovic D, editors. Application of urban growth model to project slum development and its implications on water supply and sanitation planning. Proceedings 9th International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling; 2012.
Radhakrishnan M, Pathirana A, Ghebremichael K, Amy G. Modelling formation of disinfection by-products in water distribution: optimisation using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA. 2012;61(3):176-88.
Radhakrishnan M, Gersonius B, Pathirana A. Web 2.0 collaboration tool to support student research in hydrology &ndash&59; an opinion. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2012;16(8):2499-509.
Pena G, Pathirana A. Evaluating the impact of climate change on urban scale extreme rainfall events: Coupling of multiple global circulation models with a stochastic rainfall generator. UNESCO-IHE; 2012.
Pathirana A, Koster J, de Jong E, Uhlenbrook S. On teaching styles of water educators and the impact of didactic training. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss. 2012;9:2959-86.
Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Radhakrishnan M. Web 2.0 collaboration tool to support student research in hydrology–an opinion. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2012;16(8):2499-509.
Pathirana A. Interactive comment on “Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam” by HTL Huong and. 2012.
Gersonius Berry AR, Assela P, Chris Z. Adaptation of flood Risk Infrastructure to Climate Resilience. Water and Energy International. 2012;69(12).
Gersonius B, Nasruddin F, Ashley R, Jeuken A, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C. Developing the evidence base for mainstreaming adaptation of stormwater systems to climate change. Water research. 2012;46(20):6824-35.
Gersonius B, Ashley R, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C, editors. Adaptation of flood risk infrastructure to climate resilience. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Civil Engineering; 2012: Thomas Telford Ltd.
Adeogun A, Pathirana A, Daramola M. 1D–2D Hydrodynamic model coupling for inundation analysis of sewer overflow. J Eng Appl Sci. 2012;7(5):356-62.
Veerbeek W, Denekew HB, Pathirana A, Brdjanovic D, Zevenbergen C, Bacchin TK, editors. Urban growth modeling to predict the changes in the urban microclimate and urban water cycle. 12th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Brazil; 2011.
Pathirana A, Tsegaye S, Gersonius B, Vairavamoorthy K. A simple 2-D inundation model for incorporating flood damage in urban drainage planning. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci. 2011;15:2747-61.
Kuzniecow Bacchin T, Veerbeek W, Denekew H, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C, editors. Space metrics modeling to analyse correlations between urban form and surface water drainage performance. Proceedings of the 12th International conference on urban drainage, 11-16 September (2011), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil; 2011: International Water Association.
Delelegn S, Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Adeogun A, Vairavamoorthy K. Multi-objective optimisation of cost–benefit of urban flood management using a 1D2D coupled model. Water Science and Technology. 2011;63(5):1053-9.
Bacchin TK, Veerbeek W, Pathirana A, Denekew HB, Zevenbergen C, editors. Spatial metrics modeling to analyse correlations between urban form and surface water drainage performance. Proceedings of the 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 2011.
Pathirana A, Maheng MD, Brdjanovic D, editors. A Two-dimensional pollutant transport model for sewer overflow impact simulation. 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil; 2010.
Pathirana A, editor Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision-A case study. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts; 2010.
Pathirana A, editor Urban Growth Causes Significant increase in Extreme Rainfall-A modelling study. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts; 2010.
Pathirana A. EPANET2 desktop application for pressure driven demand modeling. Water Distribution Systems Analysis 20102010. p. 65-74.
Gersonius B, Ashley R, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C, editors. Managing the flooding system's resiliency to climate change. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Engineering Sustainability; 2010: Thomas Telford Ltd.
Gersonius B, Ashley R, Jeuken A, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C, editors. Accounting for climate change in urban drainage and flooding: contrasting alternative approaches to devising adaptive strategies. 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil; 2010.
Gersonius B, Ashley R, Jeuken A, Nasruddin F, Pathirana A, Zevenbergen C, editors. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method. EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts; 2010.
Adeogun A, Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Wright N, Sanders B, editors. 1D-2D model coupling for urban drainage analysis and optimization. Integrating water systems Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Computing and Control for the Water Industry, CCWI 2009-'Integrating Water Systems', Sheffield, UK, 1-3 September 2009; 2010: CRC Press/Balkema.
Maharjan M, Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Vairavamoorthy K. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2009;13(4):481-9.
Vairavamoorthy K, Gorantiwar SD, Pathirana A. Managing urban water supplies in developing countries–Climate change and water scarcity scenarios. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 2008;33(5):330-9.
Sempewo J, Pathirana A, Vairavamoorthy K. Spatial analysis tool for development of leakage control zones from the analogy of distributed computing. Water Distribution Systems Analysis 20082008. p. 1-15.
Pathirana A, editor Global dimming—a cure for climate change or an agent for making its impacts worse. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on urban drainage; 2008.
Jumadar A, Pathirana A, Gersonius B, Zevenbergen C. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. 2008(3):1533-66.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T, Swain D. Impacts of absorbing aerosols on South Asian rainfall. Climatic Change. 2007;85(1-2):103-18.
Perera LK, Pathirana A. The role of MODIS data in visualizing flood disaster information for mass media. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics. 2006;6(3).
Herath S, Swain D, Pathirana A, editors. Global Warming and Atmospheric Brown Cloud Effects on Local Climate and Rice Production. Proceedings of the 3rd APHW International Conference, October; 2006.
Swain D, Herath S, Pathirana A, Mittra B. Rainfed lowland and flood-prone rice: A critical review on ecology and management Technology for improving the productivity in Asia. Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Thailand. 2005.
Swain D, Herath S, Pathirana A, Dash R. Nitrogen fertilizer optimization and cultivar selection for rice grown near mountainous slopes in Orissa, India. Journal of Mountain Science. 2005;2(4):329-35.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T, Swain D. Hydrometeorological input for improving flood forecasting in the mekong: Development of a real-time rainfall forecasting system. Herath S, Dutta D, Weesakul U, Gupta A, Role of water sciences in transboundary river basin management, RNUS, School of Civil Engineering. 2005:49-56.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T, editors. An automated, real-time dynamic rainfall prediction system. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management; 2005.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T. Simulating orographic rainfall with a limited-area, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model under idealized forcing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2005;5(1):215-26.
Pathirana A, Yamada T. Idealized simulation of orographic rainfall with a mesoscale atmospheric model. PROCEEDINGS OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 2004;48:295-300.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T. Simulating orographic rainfall with a limited-area, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model under idealized forcing. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 2004;4(5):5625-53.
PATHIRANA A, HERATH S, YAMADA T, editors. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING ON PRECIPITATION DISTRIBUTIONS USING A LIMITED-AREA ATMOSPHERIC MODEL IN AN IDEALIZED SETTING. Proceedings of second APHW conference, Singapore; 2004.
Assela P, Srikantha H, Tadashi Y, editors. Incorporating Aerosol Radiative Forcing Effects into Rainfall Simulations. Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui Yan Jiu Fa Biao Hui Yao Zhi Ji Di 17 Hui (2004 Nian Du ) Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui Zong Hui Yan Jiu Fa Biao Hui ; 2004: Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui .
PATHIIRANA A, YAMADA T, editors. On the modelling of temporal correlations in. Weather Radar Information and Distributed Hydrological Modelling: Proceedings of an International Symposium (Symposium HS03) Held During IUGG 2003, the XXIII General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: at Sapporo, Japan, from 30 June to 11 July, 2003; 2003: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences.
Pathirana A, Yamaguchi M, Yamada T. Idealized simulation of airflow over a mountain ridge using a mesoscale atmospheric model. PROCEEDINGS OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 2003;47:31-6.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T. On the modelling of temporal correlations in spatial-cascade rainfall downscaling. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Publication. 2003(282):74-82.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Yamada T. Estimating rainfall distributions at high temporal resolutions using a multifractal model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. 2003;7(5):668-79.
Pathirana A, editor Incorporating Temporal Persistance into Cascade Rainfall Downscaling. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly; 2003.
Assela Pathirana Rainfall Associated with Mountain-Flow-an Idealized Study. Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui Yan Jiu Fa Biao Hui Yao Zhi Ji Di 16 Hui (2003 Nian Du ) Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui Zong Hui Yan Jiu Fa Biao Hui ; 2003: Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui .
Pathirana A, Herath S. Multifractal modelling and simulation of rain fields exhibiting spatial heterogeneity. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions. 2002;6(4):695-708.
Shang Ye Jian Yi , Da Le Hao Si , Sen Shan Cong Zhi . [Di 7 Hui Jiang Shui niGuan suruGuo Ji Hui Yi ] noBao Gao . Shui Wen Shui Zi Yuan Xue Hui Zhi . 2001;14(6):516-20.
UENO K, DAIRAKU K, PATHIRANA A, MORIYAMA T. Report on the 7th International Conference on Precipitation: Observation, Estimation, and Prediction of Precipitation Variability at All Scales. JOURNAL OF JAPAN SOCIETY OF HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES. 2001;14(6):516-20.
Pathirana A, Hearth S, Musiake K. Scaling rainfall series with a multifractal model. PROCEEDINGS OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 2001;45:295-300.
Pathirana A. Fractal Modeling of Rainfall: Downscaling in Time and Space for Hydrological Applications: PhD thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 148pp; 2001.
Assela P. Fractal modeling of rainfall: Downscaling in time and space for hydrological applications: Dong Jing Da Xue ; 2001.
Pathirana A, Herath S, Musiake K. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPATIAL MULTIFRACTAL PROPERTIES OF HOURLY SPATIAL RAINFALL OVER JAPAN. 2000.
PATHIRANA A, HEARTH S, MUSIAKE K, editors. ON THE MULTIFRACTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF AMEDAS RAINFALL. The Workshop on Water Resources Development and Flood Control, Sendai, Japan; 2000.
PATHIRANA A, HEARTH S, MUSIAKE K. On the scaling properties of a stochastic rainfall model. PROCEEDINGS OF HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING. 2000;44:1-6.
Herath S, Pathirana A, editors. Database centered simulation using www. Proc Int Conf Information Technology Tools for Natural Disaster Risk Management; 1998.
Ramasamy R, Pathirana A. Structural Characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum Antigen Repeats Support a Role in Immune Evasion. Current status of malaria research in Sri Lanka. 1990:91.