Fiona Zakaria

PhD fellow


Ms. Fiona Zakaria graduated on 28 June 2019. Find the link to her thesis here:

Fiona started PhD Studentship at UNESCO IHE in May 2012, at Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department, whose research focusing on Emergency Sanitation, under a project funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

She is from Indonesia, where she obtained BSc in Civil Engineering from Universitas Brawijaya (Indonesia). Later she did 2 MSc qualifications i.e. MSc in Sanitary and Environmental Engineering from Universiti Putra Malaysia, and MSc in Water Science, Policy and Management from University of Oxford (UK).

She has been inspired to do PhD research in emergency sanitation topic from her working experiences as water-sanitation engineer in various humanitarian agencies includes International Committee of The Red Cross (ICRC) and United Nations Children’s Funds (UNICEF) in Indonesia and Sudan.


Rethinking faecal sludge management in emergency setting.


Zakaria F., Curko J., Muratbegovic A, Garcia H. A., Hooijmans C.M., and Brdjanovic D. (2018) Evaluation of a smart toilet in an emergency camp. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 27, 512 - 523

Zakaria F., Thye Y.P., Hooijmans C. M., Garcia H. A. Spiegel A.D. and Brdjanovic D. (2017). Use acceptance of the eSOS® Smart Toilet in a temporary settlement in the Philippines. Water Practice & Technology 12(4), 832-847.

Zakaria F., Harelimana B., Curko J., van de Vossenberg J., Garcia H. A., Hooijmans C. M. and Brdjanovic D. (2016). Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS® smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 26(5-6), 536-53

Zakaria F, Garcia H, Hooijmans C, Brdjanovic D. Decision support system for the provision of emergency sanitation. Science of The Total Environment 2015; 512: 645-658

D. Brdjanovic, F. Zakaria, P. M. Mawioo, H. A. Garcia, C. M. Hooijmans, J. Curko, Y. P. Thye and T. Setiadi, eSOS® – emergency Sanitation Operation System, Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 2015; Vol 5 No 1 pp 156–164

Zakaria, F. Assessing Pro-Poor Water Supply Programs in Jakarta. Master of Science Dissertation, 2009, published in Royal Geographical Society (RGS) bursary website:

Katayon, S., Fiona, Z., Noor, M.J. Megat Mohd, Halim, G. Abdul & Ahmad, J. (2008). Treatment of mild domestic wastewater using subsurface constructed wetlands in Malaysia. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 65 (1), 87-102

Other information

Research focus

eSOS smart toilet, featuring UV germicidal light, solar panel, nano coating surface, integrated water - wastewater tank, the use of integrated sensors to sense occupation, persons weight, faecal-urine weight generated in a period of time, as well as connection to GPS system, and more. 

Decision support system for selecting technical options in emergencies


IWA Development Congress in Nairobi, 14-17 October 2013

International Women's Day Conference, IHE Delft, Delft, 7 March 2014

Humanitarian Innovation Conference, Oxford, United Kingdom, 19-20 July 2014

Environmental Technology and Management Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, 23-24 November 2015


Fiona is currently a PhD fellow under the project called Stimulating Local Innovation On Sanitation Urban Poor In SS Africa & SE Asia funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (



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