Janez Susnik

Senior Lecturer in Water Resources Management


I have three main research interests:

1) Using systems thinking and modelling to explore the global water-energy-food nexus. I am interested in assessing long-term water balance projections and scenarios under an uncertain global future. I have recently extended the use of this approach to link projections directly to impacts in food and economic sectors and for assessing reservoir resilience (see publications ). I am exploring ways to expand the scope and scale of this work to include seamless global water-energy-food assessment to explore the viabiltiy of these systems under global development, and to understand the causal links between economic growth and human development.

2) Exploring the future urban water demand, attempting to model this into the future, and investigating technical and social ways for reducing this demand, particularly with a focus on alternative water supply technologies. A particular interest is investigating the extent to which cities can be 'self-reliant' on local water resources by increasing supply (especially through alternative measures), reducing demand, and becoming more water-efficient.

3) Related to the topics above, I have an interest in urban water-energy relationships to assess how cities can become more resource efficient in a time of increasing pressure on natural resources.

I am involved in the following research projects:

  1. NEXOGENESIS a Horizon2020 funded project that I coordinate. This major research programme will run from September 2021 for four years and will investigate ways to efficiently streamline policy into the WEF Nexus, including the use of novel reinforcement learning and other artificial intelligence techniques.
  2. SIM4NEXUS. Ended June 2020. Funded by the Horizon2020 programme. I worked as Work Package co-leader, and was a member of the Project Coordination Team. I had a major role in the integrative modelling component of the project concerned with amalgamating the outputs from numerous specialised thematic models into one seamless systems analysis.
  3. AltWater. Funded under the DUPC2 programme, which is financed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. I was the project coordinator. This project assesses the potential of alternative water supplies in four cities (Maputo and Beira, Mozambique; Surabaya and Gresik, Indonesia) both now and under future conditions to determine the potential impact of rolling out these technologies to increase water security under changing climatic and socio-economic conditions.
  4. Interdepartmental Global Water Hotspot analysis. Led by PBL (Dutch Environment Assessment Agency). Major global assessment of hotspots of critical current and forecoming water issues. My work is focussed on potential water quality issues, and the impact to human health. This work led to the publication "The Geography of Future Water Challenges".
  5. Future Water Challenges 2. Led by PBL (Dutch Environment Assessment Agency). This is a follow-on study from the Global Water Hotspot analysis. I co-lead the involvement of IHE Delft, which focusses on the future development pathways of cities.

I currently teach throughout the Water Management and Governance MSc programme, and am heavily involved in mentoring MSc students. I guest lecture at IHS, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, and at IMT Atlantique, Nantes, France.

Before joining IHE Delft, I was a Research Fellow at the Centre for Water Systems, University of Exeter, working on two EU FP7 funded projects (WASSERMed and PREPARED). Before that I was with JBA Consulting (UK). I completed my PhD at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, and gained my BSc from Lancaster University.


Susnik J., Masia S., Kravcik M., Pokorny J., Hesslerova P. 2022. Costs and benefits of landscape-based water retention measures as nature-based solutions to mitigating climate impacts in eastern Germany, Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Land Degradation and Development. 1-14. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.4373.

Susnik J. 2022. Editorial: (10 years) Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Advances in W-E-F Nexus Approaches from the Global South: from Theory to Practice. Frontiers in Water. 4: 926124. DOI: 10.3389/frwa.2022.926124.

Susnik J. 2022. Global nexus relationships and trends. 36-54. In: Brouwer F. (Ed.). Handbook on the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK. 448pp. ISBN: 978 1 83910 054 3. DOI: 10.4337/9781839100550

Susnik J., Masia S., Jewitt G., Simpson G. 2022. Tools and indices for WEF nexus analysis. 67-89. In: Mabhaudi T., Senzanje A., Modi A.T., Jewitt G., Massawe F. (Eds). Water-Energy-Food nexus narratives and resource security: a global South perspective. Elsevier. 332pp. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-91223-5.00013-7. ISBN: 978-0-323-91223-5

Susnik J., Masia S., Jewitt G. 2022. Scales of application of the WEF nexus approach. 49-65. In: Mabhaudi T., Senzanje A., Modi A.T., Jewitt G., Massawe F. (Eds). Water-Energy-Food nexus narratives and resource security: a global South perspective. Elsevier. 332pp. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-91223-5.00007-1. ISBN: 978-0-323-91223-5

Masia S., Susnik J., Jewitt G., Kiala Z., Mabhaudi T. 2022. Transboundary WEF Nexus analysis: A case study of the Songwe River Basin. 91-109. In: Mabhaudi T., Senzanje A., Modi A.T., Jewitt G., Massawe F. (Eds). Water-Energy-Food nexus narratives and resource security: a global South perspective. Elsevier. 332pp. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-91223-5.00003-4. ISBN: 978-0-323-91223-5

Susnik J., Staddon C. 2021. Evaluation of water-energy-food (WEF) nexus research: perspectives, challenges and directions for future research. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 1-10. DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12977.

Terzi S., Susnik J., Schneiderbauer S., Torresan S., Critto A. 2021. Stochastic system dynamics modelling for climate change water scarcity assessment on a reservoir in the Italian Alps. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 21: 3519-3537. DOI: 10.5194/nhess-21-3519-2021.

Susnik J., Jussah O., Orabi M.O.M., Abubakar M.C., Quansah R.F., Yahaya W., Adonadaga J.A., Cossa C., Ferrato J., Cossa C.A., Hadi W., Yuniarto A., Marsono B.D., Purnomo A., Bichai F., Zevenbergen C. 2021. Comparative assessment of alternative water supply contribution across five data-scarce cities. International Journal of Water Resources Development. DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2021.1964449.

Masia S., Trabucco A., Spano D., Snyder R.L., Susnik J., Marras S. 2021. A modelling platform for climate change impact on local and regional crop water requirements. Agricultural Water Management. 255: 107005. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2021.107005

Susnik J., Masia S., Indriksone D., Bremere I., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S. 2021. System dynamics modelling to explore the impacts of policies on the water-energy-food-land-climate nexus in Latvia. Science of the Total Environment. 775: 145827. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145827

Purwanto A., Susnik J., Suryadi F.X., de Fraiture C. 2021. Water-energy-food nexus: critical review, practical applications, and prospects for future research. Sustainability (S.I. Sustainable Development and the water-energy-food nexus). 13: 1919. DOI: 10.3390/su13041919

Kibria S., Masia S., Susnik J., Hessels T.M. 2021. Critical comparison of actual evapotranspiration estimates using ground based, remotely sensed, and simulated data in the USA. Agricultural Water Management. 248: 106753. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2021.106753

Purwanto A., Susnik J., Suryadi F.X., de Fraiture C. 2021. Quantitative simulation of the water-energy-food (WEF) security nexus in a local planning context in Indonesia. Sustainable Production and Consumption. 25: 198-216. DOI: 10.1016/j.spc.2020.08.009

Townsend D.A., Susnik J., van der Zaag, P. 2020. Domestic water supply vulnerability to climate change and the role of alternative water sources in Kingston, Jamaica. Atmosphere (S.I. Central America and Caribbean Hydrometeorology and Hydroclimate). 11: 1314. DOI: 10.3390/atmos11121314

van den Heuvel L., Blicharska M., Masia S., Susnik J., Teutschbein C. 2020. Ecosystem services in the Swedish water-energy-food-land-climate nexus: anthropogenic pressures and physical interactions. Ecosystem Services. 44: 101141. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2020.101141

Ahmadi M.S., Susnik J., Veerbeek W., Zevenbergen C. 2020. Towards a global Day Zero? Assessment of current and future water supply and demand in 12 rapidly developing megacities. Sustainable Cities and Society. 61: 102295. DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2020.102295

Bakhshianlamouki E., Masia S., Karimi P., van der Zaag P., Susnik J. 2020. A system dynamics model to quantify the impacts of restoration measures on the water-energy-food nexus in the Urmia Lake Basin, Iran. Science of the Total Environment. 708: 134874. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134874

Purwanto A., Susnik J., Suryadi F.X., de Fraiture C. 2019. The use of a group model building approach to develop causal loop diagrams of the WEF security nexus in a local context: A case study in Karawang Regency, Indonesia. Journal of Cleaner Production. 240: 118170. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118170

Hulsmann S., Susnik J., Rinke K., Langan S., van Wijk D., Janssen A.B.G., Mooij W.M. 2019. Integrated modelling of water resources: the ecosystem perspective on the nexus approach. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 40: 14-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2019.07.003

Assefa Y.T., Babel M.S., Susnik J., Shinde V.R. 2019. Development of a generic domestic water security index, and application in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Water. 11: 37. DOI: 10.3390/w11010037

Purwanto A., Susnik J., Suryadi F.X., de Fraiture C. 2018. Determining strategies for water, energy, and food-related sectors in local economic development. Sustainable Production and Consumption. 16: 162-175: DOI: 10.1016/j.spc.2018.08.005

Jussah O, Orabi M.O.M., Susnik J., Bichai F., Zevenbergen C. 2018. Assessment of the potential contribution of alternative water supply systems in two contrasting locations: Lilongwe, Malawi, and Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. Journal of Water and Climate Change. DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2018.117

Susnik J. 2018. Data-driven quantification of the global water-energy-food system. Resources, Recycling and Conservation. 133: 179-190. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.023

Masia S., Susnik J., Marras S., Mereu S., Spano D., Trabucco A. 2018. Assessment of irrigated agriculture vulnerability under climate change in Southern Italy. Water (S.I. Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture under Global Change). 10: 209. DOI: 10.3390/w10020209

Susnik J., Chew C., Domingo X., Mereu S., Trabucco A., Evans B., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Savic D.A., Laspidou C., Brouwer F. 2018. Multi-stakeholder development of a serious game to explore the water-energy-food-land-climate nexus: the SIM4NEXUS approach. Water (S.I on Understanding Game-based Approaches for Improving Sustainable Water Governance: The Potential of Serious Games to Solve Water Problems). 10, 139. DOI: 10.3390/w10020139

Susnik J., van der Zaag P. 2017. Correlation and causation between the UN Human Development Index and national and personal wealth and resource exploitation. Economic Research (Ekonomska Istrazivanja). 30(1): 1705-1723. DOI: 10.1080/1331677X.2017.1383175 

Valek AM., Susnik J., Grafakos S. 2017. Quantification of the urban water-energy nexus in Mexico City, Mexico, with an assessment of water-system related carbon emissions. Science of the Total Environment. 590-591: 258-268. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.234

Mereu S., Susnik J., Trabucco A., Daccache A., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Renoldi S., Virdis A., Savic D.A., Assimacopoulos D. 2016. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: a case study from Sardinia. Science of the Total Environment. 543: 1028-1038. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.066

Susnik J. 2015. Economic metrics to estimate current and future resource use, with a focus on water withdrawals. Sustainable Production and Consumption. 2: 109-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.spc.2015.05.003

Susnik J., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Baumert N., Kloos J., Renaud F.G., La Jeunesse I., Mabrouk B., Savic D.A., Kapelan Z., Ludwig R., Fischer G., Roson R., Zografos C. 2015. Interdisciplinary assessment of sea-level rise and climate change impacts on the lower Nile delta, Egypt. Science of the Total Environment. 503-504: 279-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.111

Susnik J., Strehl, C., Postmes, L.A., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Malzer, H-J., Savic D.A., Kapelan Z., 2015, Assessing financial loss due to pluvial flooding and the efficacy of risk-reduction measures in the residential property sector. Water Resources Management. 29(1): 161-179. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-014-0833-6

Susnik J., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Savic D.A., Kapelan Z., 2013. Integrated modelling of the water-agricultural system in the Rosetta region, Nile delta, Egypt, using system dynamics. Journal of Water and Climate Change. 4(3): 209-231. DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2013.069

Susnik J., Molina J-L., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Savic D.A., Kapelan Z., 2013. Comparative analysis of System Dynamics and Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks modelling for water systems management. Water Resources Management. 27(3): 819-841. DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0217-8.

Susnik J., Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia L.S., Savic D.A., Kapelan Z., 2012, Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: Case study of the Kairouan region. Science of the Total Environment. 440: 290-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.050.085.

Alexander J., Barclay J., Susnik J., Loughlin S. C., Herd R. A., Darnell A. and Crosweller S., 2010, Sediment-charged flash floods on Montserrat: The influence of synchronous tephra fall and varying extent of vegetation damage, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 194: 127-138.

Barclay J., Alexander J., and Susnik J., 2007, Rainfall-induced lahars in the Belham Valley, Montserrat, West Indies, Journal of the Geological Society, 164: 815-827.


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